If you think you have something , go to the doctor immediately. Only some forms of cancer cause weight loss, usually weight loss in cancer patients is a side effect of the chemotherapy. It varies with the type of cancer and the person. I think this question violates the Community Guidelines. I think this question violates the Terms of Service. I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines. I think this answer violates the Terms of Service. I think this comment violates the Community Guidelines. I think this comment violates the Terms of Service. You can only upload files of type PNG, JPG, or JPEG. You can only upload files of type 3 GP, 3 GPP, MP 4, MOV, AVI, MPG, MPEG, or RM. You can only upload photos smaller than 5 MB. You can only upload videos smaller than 600 MB. You can only upload a photo (png, jpg, jpeg) or a video (3gp, 3gpp, mp4, mov, avi, mpg, mpeg, rm). You can only upload a photo or a video.
Symptoms & Stages of Lung Cancer. From early warning signs to stage IV bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, the following article features the causes, symptoms, types, and stages of lung cancer. The easiest way to get lung cancer is to smoke tobacco. Wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pains are other ignored symptoms of lung cancer. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, the most common form of lung cancer, is broken up into three categories: Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common form of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Large-Cell Lung Carcinoma: This type grows and spreads quickly in any part of the lung, making treatment difficult. Small-cell lung carcinoma forms in the larger airways and is strongly linked with smoking. Metastatic cancer begins in one part of the body and spreads to other areas. Part of the reason why lung cancer is so deadly and hard to treat is that metastasis starts early on after the cancer has formed. Common sites for lung cancer metastasis include the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone. Lung cancer uses the TNM classification scale, which denotes several characteristics. Stage II, III: While still local to its origin, the cancer is spreading and possibly affecting other organs nearby. Stage IV: Cancer has fully metastasized and spread to other organs throughout the body.
Lung Cancer Prognosis. With some important exceptions, the prognosis for lung cancer patients is poor. When physicians discuss prognosis in lung cancer, they often think about the disease in terms of survival rates . One important grouping for lung cancer survival is the stage at which the disease was diagnosed. For example, the 5-year survival rate of those with lung cancer is approximately 15%; however depending on cancer type and stage, this number can vary between 1% and 50%. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with a better overall prognosis than small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 5-year Survival Rates. Men are harder hit by lung cancer than women, both in terms of the incidence of cancer and in the deadliness of the disease. In other words, men get lung cancer more often than women and more men die of the disease than women. The 2-year survival rate in limited SCLC is 45% and the 5-year survival rate is 20% with treatment. The 2-year survival rate with extensive SCLC disease is less than 5%. Survival rates describe averages across many patients with lung cancer; individual results will vary depending on the extent of the disease, the body’s overall health and resiliency, and the methods of treatment used .
Lung Cancer: Facts, Types and Causes. What is Lung Cancer? Lung cancer - 1,370,000 deaths. An American man’s lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is 1 in 13; for a woman the risk is 1 in 16. Most lung cancer patients are over the age of 60 years when they are diagnosed. How is lung cancer classified? Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80% of lung cancers, while small cell lung cancer accounts for the remaining 20%. As the most common type of lung cancer in women and in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma forms in the mucus-producing glands of the lungs. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by small cells that multiply quickly and form large tumors that travel throughout the body. On the next page we look at the symptoms of lung cancer and how lung cancer is classified and diagnosed. On the final page we discuss treatments for lung cancer.
Lung Cancer 101. Symptoms of Lung Cancer. The signs and symptoms of lung cancer can take years to develop and they may not appear until the disease is advanced. Symptoms of lung cancer that are in the chest: Pain in the chest, shoulder, or back unrelated to pain from coughing. If the original lung cancer has spread, a person may feel symptoms in other places in the body. Common places for lung cancer to spread include other parts of the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, brain, liver, and adrenal glands. Symptoms of lung cancer that may occur elsewhere in the body:
They didn't do both because she has had fluid in the lungs for a while and didn't want to deal w/ 2 collapsed lungs. She is suppose to have the other lung done this week. Do they not care to do the invasive biopsy since she has mets in other locations? The last ct the report kind of said she had lung mets. When she had chemo every week she got aloxi to help w/ the nasia, which lasts 5 days, on the break she only had the ativan and the zophram for nasia. She is just miserable w/ the nasia going on. The second opinion Onc, said the fluid retention is a result from one of the chemo drugs she was on. Mom says she doesn't want to switch because her helped w/ the BC the first 15 year ago. My Mom is in the hospital due to lung issues, from her lung metastitis, she also recieved the news it is in her liver kidneys and pancreas and bones and brain. They thought maybe the fluid was around her heart she was ult4rasounded for heart and lungs and now they think it might be just a upper resportory virus. She just had her second Taxotere and she will stay in the hospital over the to make sure she has no problems over the weekend and she is well cared for there. Last week, when she was in the hospital, I didn't think to ask those q's. Next week she has her stint removal and replacement so I'm going up there for that one.
Stage 1 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. In stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cancer may be found in the underlying lung tissues, but not the lymph nodes. The five-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with stage I lung cancer is about 60-80 percent. Similar to stage 0 lung cancer, stage I often does not present symptoms, and so the discovery of the cancer can occur when evaluating other symptoms or health issues. Stage IA lung cancer. For patients diagnosed with stage IA non-small cell lung cancer, the cancerous tumor is 3 cm across or smaller, and it has not extended into the membranes surrounding the lungs. Stage IA lung cancer does not affect the main area of the bronchi, and has not spread to lymph nodes or other organs. A stage IA lung cancer diagnosis occurs in conjunction with the following TNM categories: N 0: The cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. Stage IB lung cancer. In patients with stage IB lung cancer, the primary tumor is larger than 3 cm, but smaller than 5 cm.
This is called the stage. However, no doctor can predict how long a patient will live with lung cancer based only on the stage of disease because lung cancer is different in each person, and treatment works differently for each tumor. Cancer stage grouping. A stage one (I) lung cancer is a small tumor that has not spread to any lymph nodes, making it possible for a surgeon to completely remove it. Stage I is divided into two substages based on the size of the tumor: Stage two (II) lung cancer is divided into two substages: A stage IIA cancer describes a tumor larger than 5 cm but less than 7 cm wide that has not spread to the nearby lymph nodes or a small tumor less than 5 cm wide that has spread to the nearby lymph nodes. Stage IIB lung cancer describes a tumor larger than 5 cm but less than 7 cm wide that has spread to the lymph nodes or a tumor more than 7 cm wide that may or may not have grown into nearby structures in the lung but has not spread to the lymph nodes. Stage four (IV) means the lung cancer has spread to more than one area in the other lung, the fluid surrounding the lung or the heart, or distant parts of the body through the bloodstream. Stage IVA cancer has spread within the chest. Stage IVB has spread outside of the chest. The type and stage of NSCLC and the patient’s overall health influence prognosis.
Treating and managing these symptoms can help you feel better and allow you to continue with more of your usual activities. These substances can lead to weight loss, muscle loss, and a decrease in appetite. They can also lead to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and mouth sores, which can affect your ability to eat normally, further contributing to weight and muscle loss. Fatigue is also a factor, since the decreases in exercise and other physical activities that happen when you’re not feeling well can also contribute to muscle loss. How are weight changes and muscle loss treated? These drugs can increase appetite for some people and may help to prevent weight and muscle loss, but they do not build up lost muscle tissue. What can I do to help maintain my weight and build strength? You can also try some upper body exercises while sitting in a chair – moving your arms up and down and front to back can help maintain flexibility. Making a fist and lifting your arms up and down in front of you can increase strength. Note the type of exercises or other physical activities you do and how they affect your mood and energy level. Nutritionists and physical or occupational therapists can advise you on other ways to maintain your weight and build strength as you cope with cancer.
In the early stages of cancer does one remain a normal weight? Does the weight loss come later when the cancer is in the advanced stages? So you are correct in your assertion that "in the EARLY stages of cancer one does remain at normal weight." The smoking related cancers are the most difficult to treat successfully, so people should not think they can smoke and be cured if they are the ones to develop smoking related cancers. She lived for 17 months after her cancer was diagnosed, and the last months she was retaining fluid in her legs. You can only upload files of type PNG, JPG, or JPEG. You can only upload files of type 3 GP, 3 GPP, MP 4, MOV, AVI, MPG, MPEG, or RM. You can only upload photos smaller than 5 MB. You can only upload videos smaller than 600 MB. You can only upload a photo (png, jpg, jpeg) or a video (3gp, 3gpp, mp4, mov, avi, mpg, mpeg, rm). You can only upload a photo or a video.
Patients with advanced lung cancer had improved appetite, less weight loss, and a significant increase in lean body mass when treated with a ghrelin agonist, two randomized trials showed. Patients in one phase III trial gained 2.4 pounds of lean body mass during 12 weeks of treatment with anamorelin, and those in the second trial had an average increase in lean body mass of 1.65 pounds. Ghrelin stimulates multiple pathways that regulate body weight, lean body mass, appetite, and metabolism, said Currow. The ghrelin receptor agonist was evaluated in two phase IIII randomized trials involving patients with unresectable stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer.
Weight Gain and Lung Cancer. Posted in: Coping with Cancer , Health and Wellness. Q: I have a client with stage 4 lung cancer, who wants to gain some weight back. A: Unintentional weight loss is a problem for many cancer patients, and having trouble with maintaining a healthy weight can be frustrating and challenging. Approach your client to see if some of these snacks would work with his schedule, and be palatable to him: Soups are often easy to tolerate, and can make great meals and snacks. Olive and canola oil can be added to yogurt frappes or smoothies as a great calorie boost.
Unexplained weight loss can be a symptom of many conditions - cancer included. Weight Loss and Cancer. Unintentional weight loss can be a symptom of cancer , though vague and non-specific. When To See Your Doctor About Weight Loss. Generally, you should see your doctor if you have lost 5 percent of your body weight within six months or less and have done so without modifying your diet or exercising. Your doctor may ask you several questions to help identify why you are losing weight. Your doctor will want to know the basics like when you first started to lose weight and how much you have lost. Remember, Weight Loss Doesn't Mean You Have Cancer. You may also get a better understanding of what your symptoms, like weight loss , may mean by using the About.com Symptom Checker , an interactive health education tool.
Diagnosing Lung Cancer. Lung Cancer Symptoms. One fourth of all people with lung cancer have no symptoms when the cancer is diagnosed. Pain in the chest area is a symptom in about one fourth of people with lung cancer.
Cachexia is often seen in end-stage cancer , and in that context is called cancer cachexia. Traditional treatment approaches, such as appetite stimulants, 5-HT 3 antagonists , nutrient supplementation, and COX-2 inhibitor , have failed to demonstrate success in reversing the metabolic abnormalities seen in cancer cachexia. The two main theories of the development of cancer cachexia are: The treatment or management of cachexia depends on the underlying causes, the general prognosis and other person related factors. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of oral fish oil for the management of cachexia associated with advanced cancer. Pharmacological interventions with appetite stimulants, nutrient supplementation, 5-HT 3 antagonists and Cox-2 inhibitor have been used to treat cancer cachexia, but with limited effect. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with cancer cachexia showed the drug was well tolerated and effective at attenuating loss of weight and lean body mass (LBM) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Peripheral muscle proteolysis, as it occurs in cancer cachexia, serves to mobilize amino acids required for the synthesis of liver and tumor protein. A phase-2 study involving the administration of antioxidants , pharmaconutritional support, progestin ( megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate ), and anti cyclooxygenase-2 drugs, showed efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer of different sites suffering cachexia. These data reinforce the use of the multitargeted therapies (nutritional supplementation, appetite stimulants, and physical activity regimen) in the treatment of cancer cachexia. The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine has been used as a component of oral supplementation to reverse cachexia in patients with advanced cancer  or HIV/AIDS .
Do patients with weight loss have a worse outcome when undergoing chemotherapy for lung cancers? The outcomes of patients with or without weight loss treated with chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC; n=290), stages III and IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n=418), or mesothelioma (n=72) were compared. Weight loss was reported by 59, 58 and 76% of patients with SCLC, NSCLC and mesothelioma, respectively. Patients with weight loss and NSCLC (P=0.003) or mesothelioma (P=0.05) more frequently failed to complete at least three cycles of chemotherapy. NSCLC patients with weight loss had fewer symptomatic responses (P=0.001). Mesothelioma patients with weight loss had fewer symptomatic (P=0.03) and objective responses (P=0.05). Weight loss was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival for patients with SCLC (P=0.003, relative risk (RR)=1.5), NSCLC (P=0.009, RR=1.33) and mesothelioma (P=0.03, RR=1.92) and an independent predictor of progression-free survival in patients with SCLC (P=0.01, RR=1.43). In patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma, weight loss is common at presentation and a frequent cause of patient concern. This study aimed to assess whether weight loss at presentation had an influence on the toxicity patients suffered from during chemotherapy, and on whether weight loss altered the amount of chemotherapy delivered. This study reviewed data that had been recorded prospectively on the RMH lung unit research database between 1994 and March 2001 for patients with SCLC, stage III or IV NSCLC, or mesothelioma and treated with chemotherapy. Response rates were compared between the patients with weight loss at presentation and those without by means of Fisher's exact test. This study included 780 patients treated by the RMH lung unit between 1994 and March 2001: 290 with SCLC, 418 NSCLC, and 72 with mesothelioma, with a median age of 63 years (range 27–85 years). Patients reported weight loss more frequently with mesothelioma than with SCLC (P=0.01) or NSCLC (P=0.005) ( Table 1 ).
Weight loss in cancer patients is due to depletion of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass, while the nonmuscle protein compartment is relatively preserved, thus distinguishing cachexia from simple starvation ( 77 ). Also in patients with pancreatic cancer, although nutritional supplementation is unable to reverse the loss of body weight, there is a relationship between calorie intake and survival ( 196 ). LMF has also been shown to increase the sensitivity of WAT to the lipolytic effects of catecholamines, as happens in adipocytes from patients with cancer cachexia ( 5 ), through an increased expression of Gαs and a decreased expression of Gαi ( 114 ). Glucocorticoids may be responsible for the increased ZAG expression seen in mice with cachexia, since the glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 38486 attenuated both the loss of body weight and ZAG expression in WAT ( 225 ). However, another study has questioned the role of PIF in weight loss in patients with metastatic gastric/esophageal and lung cancer ( 119 , 276 ). The effect on skeletal muscle was due to a depression in protein synthesis (by 50%) and an increase in protein degradation (by 50%) ( 157 ). PIF produced a specific increase in m RNA levels for ubiquitin, E 214k, and the C 9 proteasome subunit in gastrocnemius muscle, but not heart ( 156 ), suggesting that protein degradation was mediated through an increased expression of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Resveratrol was found to significantly attenuate weight loss and protein degradation in muscle through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway ( 289 ). 8 ), and this has been shown to be responsible for the depression of protein synthesis and increase in protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway ( 66 ). However, body composition analysis of patients who gained weight showed that the weight gain was due to an increase in fat and not lean body mass ( 155 ). A secondary analysis showed that increased plasma levels in the experimental group were associated with an increase in weight and lean body mass. The majority of patients with gastrointestinal cancer have an APR, which has been suggested to contribute to weight loss, and therefore, if this is downregulated, weight loss should also be attenuated.
Lung cancer symptoms. Early symptoms and signs of lung cancer. When present, common symptoms of lung cancer may include: Signs of advanced stages of lung cancer. As other parts of the body are affected, new lung cancer symptoms may develop, including: Lung Cancer Risk Factors. Diagnosing lung cancer? Is it possible to have lung cancer and not have symptoms? Lung cancer may be present for months before any symptoms emerge. Answering your questions about lung cancer. Lung cancer experts Dr.
Tests that examine the lungs are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage non-small cell lung cancer. Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage non-small cell lung cancer are often done at the same time. A biopsy needle is inserted through the chest wall and into the area of abnormal lung tissue. Bronchoscopy: A procedure to look inside the trachea and large airways in the lung for abnormal areas. The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether it is in the lung only or has spread to other places in the body). The type of lung cancer. For patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer. The treatment that's right for you depends mainly on the type and stage of lung cancer. The surgeon usually removes only the part of the lung that contains cancer. Most people who have surgery for lung cancer will have the lobe of the lung that contains the cancer removed.
Of these, about 80% are called non-small cell lung cancers, and the other 20% are small cell lung cancers; the differences are important in choosing the right cancer treatment for a patient. So lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are: Symptoms from the spread of lung cancer may be the first sign that the disease is present. If a person's symptoms are suggestive of lung cancer and additional tests have shown a suspicious area in the lungs further testing is needed. A lung cancer diagnosis can only be made from cells or tissue taken from the lungs and looked at under a microscope. Another possible diagnosis of tumor cells in the lung is not lung cancer at all, but cancer of another type that has spread through the blood to the lungs. This is called metastatic disease to the lung. What type of lung cancer the cells represent, and 2. The stage of a cancer describes the size of a tumor and whether or not it has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. The issues of local disease involvement and lymph node spread are similar to the other lung cancers, however the disease affects lining tissues within the chest so the spread of the disease is described differently. Stage I and lymph nodes within the chest.
Signs and Symptoms of Cancer. How does cancer cause signs and symptoms? The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects the organs or tissues. If a cancer has spread (metastasized), signs or symptoms may appear in different parts of the body. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer. Cancer can also cause the immune system to react in ways that produce these signs and symptoms. If cancer is not the cause, a doctor can help figure out what the cause is and treat it, if needed. What are some general signs and symptoms of cancer? You should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. Along with the general symptoms, you should watch for certain other common signs and symptoms that could suggest cancer. Sores on the penis or vagina may either be signs of infection or an early cancer, and should be seen by a health professional. The signs and symptoms listed above are the more common ones seen with cancer, but there are many others that are not listed here.
What causes anorexia, how is it treated, and what can you do to cope, to make sure you are getting the nutrition you need? What Causes Anorexia (Loss of Appetite) During Cancer Treatment? Many things can lower your appetite during cancer treatment. These include symptoms related to the cancer, side effects of treatment, and your body’s response to the cancer. Medications – Some medications (such as pain medications) can interfere with appetite and may need to be changed, or the dosage altered. Complimentary therapies - Complimentary/alternative therapies (such as herbal supplements and meditation) are being looked at for their role in assisting with appetite in cancer survivors. Cancer treatment not only decreases appetite, but you may become full more quickly when eating. Find foods that are comfortable to eat if you have mouth sores or taste changes. Make sure you keep your doctor updated on your appetite, as well as anything that is interfering with your ability to eat. Are unable to eat for 24 hours (sooner if you are unable to swallow fluids)
In October 2008, CRUK commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to carry out a survey that asked nearly 4,000 people whether or not they could “name any sign or symptoms that could be an indication of cancer”. The news sources are responding to the results of this survey, which were published today by Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK gives the results of the survey on its website. Overall, of the nearly 4,000 people questioned, 19% of men and 10% of women could not name a single symptom that might be a sign of cancer. What are the common signs and symptoms of cancer? NHS Choices and Cancer Research UK both aim to provide simple, reliable information on the possible signs and symptoms of cancer. What are the benefits knowing the signs of cancer? It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cancer because early diagnosis of the disease greatly improves the chances of treating it successfully. Treatment options for cancer are improving all the time, and the number of people who die from their disease is falling overall. Press coverage on this survey will increase knowledge of some of the early warning signs of cancer, and the research could help cancer awareness strategies through initiatives such as The National Awareness and Early Diagnosis Initiative (NAEDI). NAEDI is a collaboration between Cancer Research UK and the NHS, and it is likely that this recent press release is connected to the National Cancer Awareness Survey, which has been developed as part of NAEDI.
Weight loss is common among people with cancer and is often the first noticeable sign of the disease. As many as 40% of people with cancer report unexplained weight loss at the time of diagnosis, and up to 80% of people with advanced cancer experience weight loss and cachexia, or wasting, which is the combination of weight loss and muscle mass loss. Weight loss and muscle wasting also often come with fatigue , weakness, loss of energy, and an inability to perform everyday tasks. Controlling cancer-related weight loss is important for your comfort and well-being. Consider asking your doctor about receiving food through a tube that goes directly to the stomach, which may help people with head and neck or esophageal cancers who are having difficulty chewing or difficulty swallowing . Megestrol acetate (Megace) is a progesterone hormone that can improve appetite, weight gain, and a person's sense of well-being. Steroid medications can increase appetite, improve a person's sense of well-being, and help with nausea, weakness, or pain. Other medications are being studied to help people with cancer improve their appetite and gain weight. Nutrition counseling may help people with cancer get essential nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals into their diet and maintain a healthy body weight. You can also find a dietitian through the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. These details can help you work with your health care team to find the best way to maintain your weight, or gain needed weight, during cancer treatment.
If you've been diagnosed with lung cancer, you may already be working to maintain your body weight and muscle mass. Weight loss can be both a symptom of the disease and a side effect of cancer treatments. The effects of lung cancer can deplete your energy, requiring you to take in more calories and nutrients at a time when you may be struggling with a poor appetite. If you are losing weight in spite of increasing your caloric intake, you may need medications to stimulate your appetite and slow the loss of lean body tissue. The effects of lung cancer, the most common form of cancer worldwide, are reflected in your weight and body mass. The resting energy requirements of lung cancer patients are increased, and you may find that daily activities leave you more tired than usual. Cancer therapies such as radiation, chemotherapy and targeted drug therapies have side effects that can lead to weight loss. Involuntary weight loss, or cachexia, is common in lung cancer and has been recognized as a symptom of the disease. This loss of lean muscle mass and adipose tissue may be related to metabolic changes caused by chemicals that the lung tumor releases. Increasing proteins and fats in your diet may not reverse this loss of lean body mass.
Non-small cell lung cancer signs and symptoms. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are: Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), from cancer spread to the liver. Most of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than lung cancer. Some lung cancers can cause syndromes, which are groups of very specific symptoms. Cancers of the top part of the lungs (sometimes called Pancoast tumors) sometimes can affect certain nerves to the eye and part of the face, causing a group of symptoms called Horner syndrome: It passes next to the upper part of the right lung and the lymph nodes inside the chest. It can also cause headaches, dizziness, and a change in consciousness if it affects the brain. Some lung cancers can make hormone-like substances that enter the bloodstream and cause problems with distant tissues and organs, even though the cancer has not spread to those tissues or organs. Sometimes these syndromes can be the first symptoms of lung cancer. Because the symptoms affect organs besides the lungs, patients and their doctors may suspect at first that a disease other than lung cancer is causing them. Some of the more common paraneoplastic syndromes that can be caused by non-small cell lung cancer include: Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than lung cancer.
Rapid Weight Loss & Cancer. Rapid weight loss may be a sign of cancer. One of the first signs of cancer is rapid weight loss. Cancer cells rob your body of nutrients, causing weight loss, poor nutrition and a general decline in health. Depending on the type of cancer, the warning signs may vary. Causes of Rapid Weight Loss. Your doctor can evaluate your weight loss and find the cause and recommend the proper treatment.
The 3-factor profile (weight loss, reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation) identifies patients with both adverse function and prognosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in a homogeneous cohort of patients with cancer the role of weight loss, low food intake, and the presence of systemic inflammation in a multiple-factor profile of cachexia which aimed to reflect patients' adverse function and survival duration. Nutritional and functional characteristics of the patients (n = 170) according to weight loss (≥10%)1. Differences in the patients' nutritional and functional characteristics on the basis of the 3-factor cachexia profile (weight loss, food intake, and inflammatory status) are shown in Table 3 ⇓ . With weight loss ≥ 10%, food intake ≤ 1500 kcal/d, and CRP ≥ 10 mg/L, 22% (37 of 170) of patients met the cachexia profile definition. Nutritional and functional characteristics of the patients (n = 170) according to the multifactor profile of cachexia (weight loss ≥10%, food intake ≤1500 kcal/d, C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/L)1. Differences in the patients' nutritional and functional characteristics on the basis of having met ≥2 of the 3 factors in the 3-factor cachexia profile are shown in Table 4 ⇓ . Nutritional and functional characteristics of the patients (n = 170) according to whether or not they met ≥ 2 of 3 factors of the multifactor profile of cachexia (weight loss ≥10%, food intake ≤1500 kcal/d, C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/L)1. When the individual factors in the 3-factor cachexia profile were included, log CA 19-9, KPS, LBM, health status, food intake, and CRP (but not weight loss) carried prognostic value. When the 3-factor cachexia profile was included in the model for patients with localized disease, log CA 19-9 [hazard ratio (HR): 1.35; P = 0.019] and the profile itself (HR: 4.94; P < 0.001) were prognostic. When the cachexia profile model in which ≥2 of the 3 factors were met was use included, log CA 19-9 (HR: 1.31; P = 0.026) and the profile itself (HR: 2.40; P < 0.001) were prognostic. For patients with metastatic disease, log CA 19-9 (HR: 1.47; P = 0.007) and dyspnea (HR: 1.01; P = 0.025) were prognostic when either the 3-factor cachexia profile or the met ≥2 of 3 factors in the profile were included in the model. In the present study when all 3 factors were used to characterize cachexia, 22% of the population was identified with both objective and subjective loss of functional ability.
The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time over which smoking has occurred; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked). While the risk of lung cancer is increased with even a 10-pack-year smoking history, those with 30-pack-year histories or more are considered to have the greatest risk for the development of lung cancer. Pipe and cigar smoking also can cause lung cancer, although the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Thus, while someone who smokes one pack of cigarettes per day has a risk for the development of lung cancer that is 25 times higher than a nonsmoker, pipe and cigar smokers have a risk of lung cancer that is about five times that of a nonsmoker. In former smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer begins to approach that of a nonsmoker about 15 years after cessation of smoking. Passive smoking or the inhalation of tobacco smoke by nonsmokers who share living or working quarters with smokers, also is an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer.
PCM in cancer results from multiple factors most often associated with anorexia, cachexia, and the early satiety sensation frequently experienced by individuals with cancer. Anorexia, the loss of appetite or desire to eat, is typically present in 15% to 25% of all cancer patients at diagnosis and may also occur as a side effect of treatments. Cachexia is estimated to be the immediate cause of death in 20% to 40% of cancer patients; it can develop in individuals who appear to be eating adequate calories and protein but have primary cachexia whereby tumor-related factors prevent maintenance of fat and muscle. The etiology of cancer cachexia is not entirely understood. Anorexia, cachexia, and nutrition. American Cancer Society: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Vigano A, Watanabe S, Bruera E: Anorexia and cachexia in advanced cancer patients. Shils ME: Nutrition and diet in cancer management. Ottery FD: Cancer cachexia: prevention, early diagnosis, and management. Zeman FJ: Nutrition and cancer. Also known as cachexia, this condition is one of advanced protein-calorie malnutrition and is characterized by involuntary weight loss, muscle wasting, and decreased quality of life.[ 1 , 2 ] Tumor-induced weight loss occurs frequently in patients with solid tumors of the lung, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal tract and less often in patients with breast cancer or lower gastrointestinal cancer. Although an individual’s nutritional status may be compromised initially by the diagnosis of cancer, thorough nutritional screening procedures and the timely implementation of nutritional therapies may markedly improve the patient’s outcome. Several approaches to the treatment of cancer cachexia have been reported, and a variety of agents have been studied for their effects on appetite and weight. Table 1 lists several medications that have been proposed to treat the symptoms of cancer cachexia.[ 13 ] However, the management of cachexia remains a complex challenge, and integrated multimodal treatment targeting the different factors involved has been proposed.
Usually the management of stage IV lung cancer is with palliative intent where the patient receives palliative chemotherapy along with palliative radiotherapy and surgery if required. Most of the data on curative management of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer includes patient with adrenal metastasis and some reports with brain metastasis. There is scarce literature on the surgical management of stage IV lung cancer with pleural effusion. Lung cancer is one of the common differential diagnosis for, weight loss, lung mass, pleural effusion with lymphadenopathy in a male smoker in our country. The standard management of stage IV lung cancer with good performance status is palliative chemotherapy. The common differential diagnoses for weight loss and lung mass with lymphadenopathy in a male smoker in our country are chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and lung cancer. Clinical history and thorough examination should be made with careful palpation of the neck for lymphadenopathy and chest auscultation. The immunohistochemical markers such as TTF-1, CK 7, CK 20, 4 A 4, 34 E 12, and p63 help to classify further subtypes in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thus, the patient was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, T 3 N 2 M 1a, stage IV. The standard management of stage IV lung cancer is palliative chemotherapy with platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Chest and abdomen CT and PET scans are routinely performed in patients with suspected metastatic lung cancer. PET/CT has good sensitivity and specificity in identifying distant metastases.[ 6 ] Thus, the PET/CT is very important in the decision-making process for a patient with NSCLC, especially so in a patient with oligometastases. A PET-CT scan and an MRI scan of the brain showed absence of metastatic disease. Following three cycles of chemotherapy, PET-CT revealed a 1.9 × 1.6 × 1.2 cm left lingular lobe mass (SUV 3.5) with no abnormal activity in the mediastinal nodes and no distant metastases. Intra-operatively, a 2 × 2 cm left upper lobe lung mass was seen adherent to the pericardium with enlarged aortopulmonary AP window and left hilar nodes.
Most side effects are short term, but some can last throughout your treatment and even for some time afterward. Although side effects can be uncomfortable or painful, doctors now have many ways to reduce and even prevent side effects from treatment. The following are possible side effects you may experience and resources to help you manage: People with cancer are at risk for developing blood clots for various reasons, but steps can be taken to prevent and treat blood clots. Cancer that starts in or spreads to the bones can lead to bone pain and an increase in risk for complications, including weakening of the bone, fractures, and high calcium levels in the blood. Side effects from cancer treatment may include tooth decay and other mouth issues, including dry mouth and mouth sores. Fatigue is the most commonly reported side effect of cancer and its treatment. People with cancer who have undergone lymph node removal and/or radiation as part of their treatment are at risk for developing lymphedema, a painful swelling that happens when your body’s lymphatic fluid is unable to circulate properly and builds up in your soft tissues instead. “Oral mucositis” refers to mouth sores caused by irritation of the mucosa—the soft tissues that cover the tongue and inside of the mouth, and can be a serious side effect of chemotherapy treatment. While many people who are treated for cancer experience nausea and vomiting, medicines exist that can help control these side effects. If you are experiencing pain as a result of your cancer or its treatment, you should know that managing this pain is an important part of your overall care and should be brought to the attention of your physician. Cancer treatments can usually lead to weight loss, but people with cancer can also experience weight gain from chemotherapy treatment, steroid medications, and hormone therapy.
The following can help patients who have mouth sores and infections: Eat soft foods that are easy to chew and swallow, such as the following: Nausea caused by cancer treatment can affect the amount and kinds of food eaten. The following may help cancer patients control nausea: See the PDQ summary on Nausea and Vomiting for more information. The following may help cancer patients prevent dehydration: Healthy diet and lifestyle habits can improve the quality of life for cancer survivors. The effects of diet and lifestyle on cancer continue to be studied. The effect of soy on breast cancer and breast cancer prevention is being studied. The American Cancer Society and the American Institute for Cancer Research both have dietary guidelines that may help prevent cancer . Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly.
 The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The vast majority (85%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term tobacco smoking . Tobacco smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect on the formation of lung cancer.  In relatives of people with lung cancer, the risk is doubled.  Polymorphisms on chromosomes 5, 6 and 15 are known to affect the risk of lung cancer.  It is one of the factors affecting the prognosis and potential treatment of lung cancer. Stage IA and IB lung cancer. Internal radiotherapy for lung cancer given via the airway. Lung cancer distribution in the United States.  In the USA, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is 8% in men and 6% in women. Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the UK (around 43,500 people were diagnosed with the disease in 2011), and it is the most common cause of cancer death (around 35,400 people died in 2012). The first successful pneumonectomy for lung cancer was performed in 1933.
When you notice a change in the size, shape, or color of a mole or other spot on your skin , see your doctor as soon as you can. Have your doctor check any swelling that doesn't get better in 2 to 4 weeks, Meyers says. But if your problems don’t go away and you’re also losing weight or vomiting , your doctor may want to check you for throat or stomach cancer . During a barium test, you drink a special liquid that makes your throat stand out on the X-ray. You can take care of most cases of heartburn with changes to your diet, drinking habits, and stress levels. If that doesn’t help, ask your doctor to look into your symptoms. Heartburn that doesn't go away or gets worse could mean stomach or throat cancer . Talk to your doctor or dentist about tests and treatments. If you haven’t changed your diet or exercise habits, it could mean that stress or a thyroid problem is taking a toll. Your doctor can find out more with blood tests and tools that make detailed pictures of the inside of your body, like a CT or PET scan .
What to do about cancer patients' drastic weight loss? Is the inability of cancer patients to eat of major concern to cancer health care providers? Cachexia is best known as a disease of cancer patients, but it is seen in patients with chronic infection, AIDS, heart failure, rheumatoid diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nearly half of patients with cancer that has spread to organs other the original site of disease (metastatic disease) have cachexia. The loss in weight and body mass is driven by a metabolic disease manifested by increased energy consumption. There are studies that suggest that forced tube feeding or intravenous feeding (known as hyperalimentation) can actually increase the risk of infection and death. Studies demonstrate that cachexia is the direct cause of death in a small number of cancer patients (1 to 2 percent). Cancer cachexia appears to be caused by chemicals given off by the tumor or by the patient's immune system that is trying to combat the tumor. When there is effective treatment of the cancer, symptoms of cachexia decrease. A number of agents have been studied, not as treatment of the cancer, but as a treatment of cachexia of malignancy. Only the corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, and the progestational agents, such megesterol acetate, have proven of benefit in treatment of the loss of appetite.
The Big Picture of Lung Cancer. Symptoms of Lung Cancer. Lung Cancer Diagnosis. Types of Lung Cancer. Stages of Lung Cancer. The following two stages are used for small cell lung cancer: The following stages are used for non-small cell lung cancer: Survival Rates for Lung Cancer. Small cell lung cancer: The overall rate of both limited-stage and extensive-stage is about 6%. Lung Cancer and Secondhand Smoke. Lung Cancer and Work Exposures. Lung Cancer and Radon Gas. Lung Cancer and Air Pollution. Lung Cancer Prevention.
Do patients with weight loss have a worse outcome when undergoing chemotherapy for lung cancers? In patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma, weight loss is common at presentation and a frequent cause of patient concern. An alternative explanation is that weight loss is associated with reduced tolerance of chemotherapy, increased toxicity and the administration of less chemotherapy overall. The Lung Unit of the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) has been treating patients with NSCLC, SCLC and mesothelioma with chemotherapy over many years. This study aimed to assess whether weight loss at presentation had an influence on the toxicity patients suffered from during chemotherapy, and on whether weight loss altered the amount of chemotherapy delivered. This study reviewed data that had been recorded prospectively on the RMH lung unit research database between 1994 and March 2001 for patients with SCLC, stage III or IV NSCLC, or mesothelioma and treated with chemotherapy. Patients were excluded if their weight loss status at presentation was unknown or the patient did not receive a standard chemotherapy regimen within 2 months of presentation. Patients who stated they had lost weight at the time of presentation were compared to those who denied weight loss. Weight loss at presentation was established and recorded by direct questioning of the patient during a preliminary assessment by the doctor at their first attendance at the RMH. Patients who reported weight loss were asked whether they knew their weight prior to the illness; by comparison with measured weight the extent of weight loss was estimated (less than or greater than 10% of preillness weight). Patients were weighed on each attendance for chemotherapy and at the outpatient clinic. Response rates were compared between the patients with weight loss at presentation and those without by means of Fisher's exact test. This study included 780 patients treated by the RMH lung unit between 1994 and March 2001: 290 with SCLC, 418 NSCLC, and 72 with mesothelioma, with a median age of 63 years (range 27–85 years).
Cancer Care provides information, resources and support to help people coping with cancer manage weight loss and weight gain concerns. Our oncology social workers can help you better cope with cancer. Learn more about how oncology social workers can help you cope with a cancer diagnosis. Weight Changes After Cancer Treatment: Why is it Happening and What Can I Do About It. Read or order our free Connect booklets and fact sheets offering easy-to-read information about the latest cancer treatments, managing side effects and coping with cancer. Once your doctor diagnoses the causes, then you, your doctor, and health care team can develop a plan to treat your weight gain. In addition, your doctor may recommend that you speak with a doctor of rehabilitation medicine or a physical therapist so that you can start an exercise program to help with weight management. The most important thing to remember is that a change in weight is often due to cancer treatments and is not your fault. We offer additional information about coping with cancer:
Understanding unexpected weight loss. What are some possible causes of weight loss, what questions might your doctor ask, and what can you expect as you and your doctor seek to determine the cause? What Is Unexplained Weight Loss? Weight loss may occur because you are eating less, or because your body is using nutrients differently due to a change in your metabolism or the growth of a tumor. If you are losing weight without trying it is important to make an appointment to see your doctor, even if you think there is an explanation for your weight loss. Diagnosing Weight Loss That Isn’t Intentional. If you have unintentional weight loss, your doctor will first take a careful history and do a physical exam. How fast have you been losing weight? Have you ever had weight loss like this before? How upsetting is the weight loss to you? Causes of Unexplained Weight Loss. There are many reasons for unexplained weight loss, some serious, and some more of a nuisance. Importance of Unintentional Weight Loss. Unintentional weight loss in older adults . Weight Loss – Unintentional.
Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) Perhaps the most important reason to distinguish small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) from other types is that it behaves differently than the other lung cancers. Despite the rapid, aggressive growth of small-cell lung cancer, it is remarkably sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. In fact, surgery is rarely performed for small-cell lung cancer. This does not necessarily mean that small-cell lung cancer has a good prognosis , especially since the disease is often widespread at the time of diagnosis. Small-cell lung cancers are somewhat unique in where they form in the lung. Since the small-cell lung cancer is reasonably close to the bronchus, a biopsy can be taken using a bronchoscope. Under a microscope, small-cell lung cancer cells appear relatively small, as the name implies. Small-cell lung cancer cells have large, dark nuclei and very little cytoplasm (liquid inside the cell).