Muscle Deterioration Weight Loss


Muscle Weakness and Fatigue. Information and causes

This leaflet looks at types of muscle weakness and discusses the wide range of problems which may cause them. When this kind of weakness occurs the muscles are often floppier than usual, and reduced in bulkiness. The difference between these three types of muscle weakness is often vague, and you can have more than one of them. Any illness with generalised temperature and muscle inflammation can be the trigger. Exercising without ‚Äėwarming up‚Äô and stretching the muscles is a common cause of muscle pull. This makes the muscle less strong and also painful to use. Less commonly-used medicines which can cause muscle weakness and damage to muscles include: Guillain-Barr√© syndrome : this is a post-viral paralysing disease which causes weakness and loss of muscle function from the fingers and toes upwards. The condition can take months or years to progress but patients quickly develop profound muscle weakness and wasting. If you you have muscle weakness and visit your doctor, they will first need to know the following: more...



Muscle wasting, weight loss, yervoy and steroids

Muscle wasting, weight loss, yervoy & steroids. My husband, Ron, has been struggling with weight loss, but more frighteningly, muscle loss. I've researched (Googled, more accurately) and found that the particular steroid he was prescribed, Dexamethasone (a flourinated steroid) is well-known for causing muscle wasting. That, while all steroids can cause muscle loss, this drug is the worst of the lot. Yervoy can cause weight loss. Cancer can cause muscle wasting and weight loss. We really didn't need anything else to contribute to the muscle wasting aspect! Block, he should be consuming around 2600 calories to help counteract the weight loss. Although he still has a weak voice,  and a bad limp because of Drop Foot/neuropathy, we are hopeful that he can at some point resume the Yervoy therapy. more...



Common Reasons for Weight Loss and Muscle Wasting

Common Reasons for Weight Loss & Muscle Wasting. Weight loss and muscle loss can result from diet, medical conditions or aging. Weight and muscle loss can result from various conditions. Because they can result from serious health conditions, anyone experiencing sudden changes in weight or muscle mass should see their physician. Common causes for weight loss and muscle wasting, or sarcopenia, include changes in diet and activity level, disease and age. This is why proper nutrition and exercise plans should be implemented to prevent muscle loss as you lose weight, the 2008 text "Physiology of Sport and Exercise" notes. more...



Print How Endurance Athletes Can Minimize Muscle Loss

Endurance athletes can boost performance and muscle mass by incorporating resistance training. Incorporating heavy lifting into an endurance training regimen along with a diet high in protein may help athletes reduce unwanted muscle loss (1). Why traditional endurance training can cause muscle loss. The goal of an endurance program is to improve stamina, and this type of training typically results in muscle loss for two reasons. Second, endurance exercise can quickly burn through carbs and fat, forcing the body to breakdown muscle to help meet energy needs (2-4). So how can muscle loss be prevented if endurance training overrides the body’s muscle building systems and at the same time contributes to muscle breakdown? The key for preventing muscle loss is to follow a training program that incorporates both heavy weights and endurance training. Along with a well-planned training program, incorporating the right nutritional strategy is essential for preventing muscle loss while endurance training. For endurance athletes with the goal of losing body fat during training, research shows that protein should be increased to as high as 1.8 to 2.7 grams per kilogram of bodyweight to offset muscle loss (7). When training and diet are done right, you can prevent unwanted muscle loss while building stamina and strength to beat out the competition. Beyond muscle hypertrophy: why dietary protein is important for endurance athletes. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength. more...



Sarcopenia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sarcopenia (from Greek ŌÉő¨ŌĀőĺ sarx, "flesh" and ŌÄőĶőĹőĮőĪ penia, "poverty") is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5‚Äď1% loss per year after the age of 50), quality, and strength associated with aging. Sarcopenia is a component of the frailty syndrome . The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia, using the presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function (strength or performance). [3] Sarcopenia is determined by two factors: initial amount of muscle mass and rate at which aging decreases muscle mass. Sarcopenia is also marked by a decrease in the circumference of distinct types of muscle fibers . A recent study, in community dwelling older adults with an average age of 67 years, found the UK prevalence of sarcopenia to be 4.6% in men and 7.9% in women using the EWGSOP approach. Oxidized proteins increase in skeletal muscle with age and leads to a buildup of lipofuscin and cross-linked proteins that are normally removed via the proteolysis system. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] One study has shown that lower birth weight is associated with a significant decrease in muscle fibre score, suggesting that developmental influences on muscle morphology may explain the widely reported associations between lower birth weight and sarcopenia. And the degree of sarcopenia can be measured using DEXA in patients being evaluated for osteoporosis, at the same time with the same scan, with no added cost or radiation exposure to the patient.[ medical citation needed ] Novartis proposes the use of a new molecule BYM 338 Bimagrumab for treatment of sarcopenia and plans to make a FDA submission in 2019. The combination of osteoporosis and sarcopenia results in the significant frailty often seen in the elderly population. The type, duration and intensity of exercise are variable between studies, so an ‚Äėoff the shelf‚Äô exercise prescription for sarcopenia remains an aspiration. The role of nutrition in preventing and treating sarcopenia is less clear. more...



Muscle wasting and weakness

Muscle wasting and weakness: Symptoms ¬Ľ Muscle wasting and weakness. Muscle wasting and weakness: Introduction. ¬Ľ Review Causes of Muscle wasting and weakness: Causes | Symptom Checker ¬Ľ Muscle wasting and weakness: Symptom Checker. Muscle wasting and weakness: Animations. Muscle wasting and weakness: Comorbid Symptoms. Causes of Similar Symptoms to Muscle wasting and weakness. Misdiagnosis and Muscle wasting and weakness. Detailed list of causes of Muscle wasting and weakness. How Common are these Causes of Muscle wasting and weakness? more...



Unexplained, Sudden Weight Loss in Cats

Depending on the reason for your cat’s weight loss, you may notice that your cat’s appetite is reduced or entirely gone, a condition known as anorexia. If you are not sure what your cat’s ideal weight should be, your veterinarian will be able to provide guidance and a suggested feeding regimen to meet your cat’s nutritional needs. Causes of Cat Weight Loss. Cats under psychological stress may go off their food, which can result in weight loss. Although not all cat weight loss is caused by cancer, it is a relatively common culprit. This disease, which may be caused by a failure to produce the hormone insulin or an impaired ability to respond to it, commonly causes weight loss in cats, often with a change in appetite. more...



Muscle Atrophy Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

Muscle Atrophy Symptoms, Causes and Treatments. While the medical term is muscle atrophy, most of us refer to it as muscle wasting or wasting of the muscles. The first type is called ¬Ďdisuse atrophy¬í while the other is referred to as ¬Ďneurogenic atrophy,¬í and while many of the symptoms may be the same, the causes are dissimilar and the treatments will vary as well. Most of the time muscle atrophy is simply the result of disuse. This will cause compression of spinal cord which then affects the nerve and can result in neurogenic muscle atrophy. Signs and Symptoms of Muscle Atrophy. The signs and symptoms of neurogenic muscle atrophy are a bit more difficult for the layperson to recognize quickly. Consequently, one of the first signs of neurogenic muscle atrophy is a stooped posture. Again, the heart is a muscle and should it atrophy, it will most likely also fail. Disuse muscle atrophy can often be corrected with the proper amount and type of exercise while neurogenic atrophy may be treated in one or more ways. more...



Catabolic Wasting - Cachexia and Sarcopenia

Loss of muscle and fat tissue due to chronic illness is called cachexia. The general loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs with advancing age is called sarcopenia. In both cachexia and sarcopenia, muscle loss can lead to frailty and adversely affect a variety of clinical outcomes (Rolland 2011; Fearon 2013; Muscaritoli 2013). The term ‚Äúcatabolic wasting‚ÄĚ encompasses both sarcopenia and cachexia. Cachexia usually causes more rapid and pronounced weight reduction than sarcopenia and is generally characterized as loss of muscle and fat tissue totaling more than 5% of body weight, but losses of more than 20% of body weight are common (Rolland 2011; Nicolini 2013; Siddiqui 2006; Muscaritoli 2013; Gordon 2004; Gullett 2011). Sarcopenia (from the Greek meaning "poverty of flesh") generally refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function (Iannuzzi-Sucich 2002). Some researchers refer to age-related muscle loss not associated with an underlying cause as ‚Äúprimary sarcopenia,‚ÄĚ and that which occurs as a consequence of one or more other causes as ‚Äúsecondary sarcopenia‚ÄĚ (Rolland 2011; Muscaritoli 2013). However, many standard medical therapies to treat sarcopenia and cachexia present the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, edema, and fatigue, and some of them have not been adequately tested in clinical trials (Gullett 2010; Fox 2009; Fearon 2013). Early recognition and treatment of cachexia is even more important, considering that losing as little as 5% of body weight in cancer patients may increase the risk of adverse effects from chemotherapy drugs (Brotto 2012; Fearon 2013). more...



Wasting Syndrome or Cancer Cachexia - Mesothelioma Aid

Cachexia, also known as Wasting Syndrome, describes a condition in which the body begins to deteriorate during the end-stages of diseases such as cancer and AIDS. The onset of AIDS wasting and cancer wasting usually occurs when a person is close to death, and it is signaled by a loss of ten percent or more of body mass when the person is not intending to lose that mass. In some patients and for some diseases, there will be episodes of wasting to a lesser degree as the disease progresses without leading to death, but when a sudden loss of ten percent or greater occurs, it is a sign that the stage of the disease is advanced to a terminal stage. The main symptoms of wasting syndrome are its defining factors, the loss of weight from muscle and fat deterioration. While healthy individuals can lose a percentage of their lean body mass and fat, the dangers are especially pronounced for cancer and AIDS patients as their bodies will burn large amounts of muscle to fight an infection. Converting fat is much more difficult for the body than converting the protein in muscle, so the primary signature of wasting syndrome is that the body loses muscle much faster than fat. To identify wasting syndrome, a doctor can perform a BIA test, bioelectrical impedance analysis, to keep track of the patient's weight, or a doctor could track a patient's BMI, body mass index, to watch for sudden, pronounced weight loss. While there is no standard treatment for wasting syndrome, there are methods to treat the symptoms while a person is affected to encourage a recovery. Due to the variable nature of wasting syndrome, there is no set way to treat it, and a doctor will need to identify and treat specific symptoms on a case-by-case basis. more...



Muscle Loss in Dogs, Muscle Wastage in Senior Dogs Dog

Aspergillosis is a fungal disease that usually affects the nasal passages and respiratory system. If the disease spreads throughout the body it is known as disseminated aspergillosis. The most common form of thyroid disease is autoimmune thyroiditis, which is typified by the antithyroid antibodies that appear in the canine‚Äôs blood and tissue. The most common treatment for thyroid disease is daily injections of the T 4 hormone; the brand names for T 4 hormones are Soloxine and Synthroid. Myositis is an inflammation of the muscles and can be a sign of a more serious illness. Myositis can affect just one muscle, such as the jaw, or it can affect groups at a time. Although degenerative myelopathy is a spinal cord disorder, it also causes muscle wasting and loss in the hind legs. While the cause of degenerative myelopathy is unknown, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The term tick disease is used as an umbrella term that includes Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and basesiosis. Symptom of tick-related disease include muscle wasting, swelling of the extremities, nose bleeds and fever. Some muscle loss, notably on the head and the belly muscles, can signify diseases such as masticatory myositis and Cushing‚Äôs Disease. Treatment may include drug therapy, surgery, physical therapy and muscle support products ‚Äď the best being our Spero harness. more...



How to Stay Strong and Prevent Muscle Loss

How to Stay Strong and Prevent Muscle Loss. Here, we explain just how long it takes to lose muscle mass and strength, and what to do stop it from happening. One study on rats found that just 48 hours after exercise, the body hits a lower steady-state rate of protein synthesis and stops building and repairing muscle. Protein metabolism and beta-myosin heavy-chain m RNA in unweighted soleus muscle . Age: Regardless of how often we make it to the gym, the natural process of aging can cause muscle loss. Sarcopenia- Age-Related Muscle Wasting and Weakness: Mechanisms and Treatments . Resistance exercise for the aging adult: clinical implications and prescription guidelines . Sleep: Because sleep debt decreases the rate at which the body builds and repairs muscle, skipping sleep to hit the weight room can neutralize results. Sleep and muscle recovery: endocrinological and molecular basis for a new and promising hypothesis . How much and how fast muscles atrophy, or lose mass, depends on the muscle. Skeletal muscle form and function . General muscle strength is usually maintained for at least the first month of inactivity. There's no easy way to prevent loss of muscle mass and strength. While results are inconclusive as to whether eating more protein, specifically, can prevent muscle loss, a balanced diet helps ensure that muscles get the amino acids, vitamins, and minerals they need to build and stay strong. Does protein supplementation prevent muscle disuse atrophy and loss of strength ? more...



Whether Low - Carb Diets Cause Muscle

The following studies measured the amount of protein (muscle) losses that occurred on various diets. They measured the amount of protein they were losing by urine testing. Protein metabolism during weight reduction with very-low-energy diets: evaluation of the independent effects of protein and carbohydrate on protein sparing. The aim of this study was to assess the independent effects of carbohydrate and protein intakes in protein sparing during weight reduction. Forty-eight obese women were randomly assigned to consume isoenergetic (2500 k J/d) liquid diets that provided the following amounts (g/d) of protein and carbohydrate, respectively, for 28 d: 50 and 10, 50 and 76, 70 and 10, and 70 and 86. The effects of carbohydrate and protein were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Comments: They gave people varying amounts of protein and carbohydrate, and then measured the amount of protein (muscle) they were losing. The more protein they ate, the less muscle they lost. After 3 wk of adaptation to the diets, nitrogen balance was zero for the 1.5 g protein diet but -2 g N/d for the 0.8 g protein diet. The other group was given a harsh diet of only 500 calories, which was a mix of carbs and protein. Glucose utilization and nitrogen balance in the obese on a protein-lipid hypocaloric diet. Weight loss averaged 454 g/day during the 1st week and 238 g/day for the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the diet. more...



The Mechanism of Muscle Loss in Cancer

The Mechanism of Muscle Loss in Cancer. Cancer wasting, also called cancer cachexia, is marked by weakness and the progressive loss of body weight, fat, and muscle. The cells then fuse with surrounding muscle fibers to increase muscle mass. In both mice and cancer patients, wasting was associated with muscle damage and activation of nearby stem cells. However, the stem cells became arrested in a semi-differentiated state and failed to fuse with the other muscle fibers. When arrested stem cells from wasting mice were removed from the tumor environment and placed in tumor-free culture, they were able to complete differentiation to muscle cells. When tumors were excised from wasting mice, the stem cells in the mice were able to complete their differentiation and fuse into muscle fibers. Consequently, the mice regained muscle mass. They found that overexpression of Pax7, which regulates muscle stem cell proliferation, impairs the stem cells‚Äô differentiation to muscle cells in mice with cachexia. ‚ÄúBy identifying agents that overcome the block and allow muscle stem cells to differentiate, it might be possible to restore muscle mass and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients with cachexia.‚ÄĚ more...



Muscle atrophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. [1] The particular protein degradation pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP -dependent ubiquitin / proteasome pathway. A CT scan can distinguish muscle tissue from other tissues and thereby estimate the amount of muscle tissue in the body. During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass. Muscle atrophy can be opposed by the signaling pathways which induce muscle hypertrophy , or an increase in muscle size. Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. [4] In humans, prolonged periods of immobilization, as in the cases of bed rest or astronauts flying in space, are known to result in muscle weakening and atrophy. During hibernation, bears spend four to seven months of inactivity and anorexia without undergoing muscle atrophy and protein loss. [5] There are a few known factors that contribute to the sustaining of muscle tissue. During the summer period, bears take advantage of the nutrition availability and accumulate muscle protein. [4] Another factor that contributes to the sustaining of muscle strength in hibernating bears is the occurrence of periodic voluntary contractions and involuntary contractions from shivering during torpor . [7] The three to four daily episodes of muscle activity are responsible for the maintenance of muscle strength and responsiveness in bears during hibernation. more...



HIV and AIDS Information : : Unintentional weight loss

Unintentional weight loss. Weight loss, or wasting, is one of the most common symptoms of untreated HIV infection, and can occur at any stage of infection. Weight loss occurs when the body is using up more nutrients than it is absorbing from food. You may eat less than you used to (and need to) because of loss of appetite during ill health. The most important ways to prevent weight loss are to treat HIV-related infections promptly, and to ensure that your nutritional intake is adequate. A dietician can help you look at your diet to ensure you have an adequate intake of all the main types of nutrients, and recommend any changes to fit in with any drugs you are taking and to help you cope with problems such as nausea. You can help by taking symptoms such as loss of appetite, persistent nausea and diarrhoea seriously and seeking prompt medical advice. However, weight loss can still occur in people taking anti-HIV drugs and needs to be taken very seriously as some research suggests that unintentionally losing 5% of your body weight in a six-month period is an indicator that you could become seriously ill because of HIV. If you have been unwell and have lost weight as a result, then taking HIV treatment is likely to help you to increase your weight and lean muscle mass. If you have lost weight after an HIV-related infection, a dietitian may recommend increasing your calorie and protein intake to try to regain it. more...



Intermittent Fasting and Muscle Loss : What Does the

Intermittent Fasting and Muscle Loss: What Does the Research Show? Today, a question from one Muscle Evo reader on the subject of intermittent fasting and muscle loss. And it‚Äôs the length of these fasting periods that has left some people concerned about losing muscle. Back in 2009, researchers looked at the effect of alternate day fasting in a group of 16 obese men and women [6]. In 2011, Dr Krista Varady of the University of Illinois at Chicago compared the results from a number of studies on both intermittent and continuous calorie restriction [5]. ‚ÄúFrom the studies reviewed here, it would appear as though a lower proportion of lean mass is lost in response to intermittent calorie restriction (90% weight lost as fat, 10% weight loss as fat free mass) when compared to daily calorie restriction (75% weight lost as fat, 25% weight loss as fat free mass).‚ÄĚ Variations in the amount of lost weight coming from muscle and fat could have had more to do with differences in the way each study was set up rather than any special ‚Äúnutrient partitioning‚ÄĚ effect that‚Äôs unique to intermittent fasting. The intermittent fasting group had lost an average of 14 pounds of fat compared to 12 pounds in the normal dieters. And this was measured using DXA, which is more reliable than the methods used in many of the other studies on intermittent fasting. Does this mean that intermittent fasting can help you preserve muscle without the need for strength training or a higher protein intake? In summary, the research to date does not show that intermittent fasting leads to more muscle loss than regular diets, as far as overweight and obese individuals are concerned anyway. more...



Causes of Muscular Atrophy, Muscle Loss, Muscle Atrophy

Causes of Muscular Atrophy, Muscle Loss, Muscle Atrophy, Muscle Wasting. Muscle atrophy and muscle tissue loss or wasting are synonymous. Muscle atrophy caused by non-use bestows the greatest loss of muscle size and strength. A sedentary lifestyle is a primary factor leading to muscle tone lose and atrophy development. more...



What Happens to Aging Muscles - For Dummies

Your skeletal muscles (also known as lean muscle) are the muscles that attach to your bones and are under voluntary control. A recent study concluded that total muscle mass decreases by nearly 50 percent for people between the ages of 20 and 90. The following four types of muscle weakening (called atrophy) become more common as people age, and each type responds differently to strength training. You can rebuild muscle mass lost from a sedentary lifestyle ‚ÄĒ all you have to do is get off the couch and do something physical! Physical therapy is often prescribed as treatment for people who are bedridden so that they don't have muscle loss. The muscle loss in these situations is more damaging because you have almost no use of the diseased muscles. With the other types of muscle loss, you have at least some use of the muscle groups. Work closely with your doctor to prevent muscle loss if you have any of these conditions: In addition to general skeletal muscle loss, the following changes occur as you age: As a normal course of aging, you begin to lose the muscle fibers that are responsible for making you move quickly. more...



Advocare Products - Fast Trak Fitness

Together, the 21 vitamins, minerals and nutrients in ADVOCARE Spark Energy Drink work synergistically to provide a healthy, balanced and effective source of energy that won't overburden or stimulate your body like most energy drinks on the market. Advocare Thermo Plus is a great addition to your weight-management program, and works especially well in conjunction with the Advo Care Metabolic Nutrition Systems. Advocare Core Plex¬ģ Multiple Vitamin and Minerals. Each serving of Advocare Core Plex supplement provides 33 vitamins, minerals and botanicals in a highly absorbable form so you can enjoy the advantages of complete core nutrition. Advo Care Muscle Fuel is a unique, single-product solution that supports multiple muscle metabolic processes and helps maintain and restore energy during and after physical activity. Advo Care Muscle Fuel also supplies essential muscle-gaining components during and after physical activity, helps reduce oxidative stress, facilitates workout recovery, maximizes training benefits, and helps you take your workout to the next level. ‚ÄĘ Works great in conjunction with Advo Care Spark¬ģ Energy Drink and one of the Advocare Metabolic Nutrition Systems (MNS¬ģ) Advocare Catalyst‚ĄĘ Amino Acid Supplement is a blend of essential branched-chain amino acids and L-glutamine that supplies your body with muscle-building components and sustains your muscles during exercise and reduced calorie intake. Whether you're trying to lose weight or gain muscle, Advocare Catalyst helps repair and protect muscles. Advocare Catalyst works great in conjunction with other Advo Care products like Spark‚ĄĘ Energy Drink and one of the Advocare Metabolic Nutrition Systems (MNS¬ģ). ‚ÄĘ Helps maintain and restore energy supplies during and after physical activity. Advocare Post-Workout Recovery Sports Drink contains more than 30 vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that support the muscles' metabolic processes in recovery and helps minimize occasional soreness after workouts. Advocare Post-Workout Recovery helps enhance physical performance and endurance while supplying essential components for muscle repair and gain during and after physical activity. Advocare Post-Workout Recovery also contains branched-chain amino acids to support muscle recovery, growth and endurance. more...



Sarcopenia

From the time you are born to around the time you turn 30, your muscles grow larger and stronger. But at some point in your 30s, you begin to lose muscle mass and function, a condition known as age-related sarcopenia or sarcopenia with aging. Although there is no generally accepted test or specific level of muscle mass for sarcopenia diagnosis, any loss of muscle mass is of consequence, because loss of muscle means loss of strength and mobility. Sarcopenia typically accelerates around age 75 - although it may happen in people age 65 or 80 - and is a factor in the occurrence of frailty and the likelihood of falls and fractures in older adults. The primary treatment for sarcopenia is exercise. Specifically, resistance training or strength training - exercise that increases muscle strength and endurance with weights or resistance bands - has been shown to be useful for both the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. more...



Muscle Atrophy : Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Muscle atrophy is when muscles waste away. You may have muscle loss if one of your. Muscle Atrophy. You may have muscle loss if one of your limbs appears smaller (not shorter) than the other. Causes of Muscle Atrophy. Muscle atrophy can also happen if you are bedridden or unable to move certain body parts due to a medical condition. Other causes for muscle atrophy include: Diseases can cause muscles to waste away or can make movement difficult, leading to muscle atrophy. Dermatomyositis (a muscle disease) Guillain-Barre syndrome (an autoimmune disease that leads to nerve inflammation and muscle weakness) Muscular dystrophy (an inherited disease that causes muscle weakness) Signs of Muscle Atrophy. You may have muscle atrophy if: Contact your doctor to have a complete medical examination if you believe you may have muscle atrophy or if you are unable to move in a normal manner. How Muscle Atrophy Is Diagnosed. more...



Skeletal muscle loss : cachexia, sarcopenia, and inactivity

Loss of skeletal muscle protein results from an imbalance between the rate of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Cachexia, sarcopenia, and atrophy due to inactivity are characterized by a loss of muscle mass. It is characterized by loss of skeletal muscle and body weight. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle and function. Cachexia has been defined by Evans et al ( 1 ) as "a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Although cachexia is associated with both fat and muscle loss, the benefits of preserving skeletal muscle or body fat stores is still unresolved. Loss of body weight, fat, and skeletal muscle has been associated with increased mortality in patients with cachexia. Skeletal muscle ( 22 ) and bone mass are the principal components of lean body mass to decline with age. Loss of skeletal muscle with advancing age begins relatively early, and continues until the end of life ( 22 ). These data along with no increase in 3-methylhistidine excretion led the authors to conclude that the increased nitrogen and muscle loss resulted from an inhibition of protein synthesis. The authors concluded ( 45 , 46 ) that the loss of body protein with inactivity was predominantly due to a decrease in muscle protein synthesis. These authors also showed that bedrest had no effect on the rate of muscle protein degradation, and muscle loading increased the rate of protein synthesis. more...



NHS Choices - Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy  Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease that causes muscle weakness and progressive loss of movement. SMA is caused by deterioration in the nerve cells (motor neurones) connecting the brain and spinal cord to the body's muscles. The term spinal muscular atrophy can be applied to a number of different related conditions. Classification of spinal muscular atrophy. SMA is classified according to the age symptoms appear and how much physical mobility a person has: Symptoms usually appear after 18 months of age, and children are usually able to reach all the major motor milestones, including independent walking. Read more about the symptoms of the different types of spinal muscular atrophy . However, treatment and support is available to help manage the symptoms and provide people with SMA with the best possible quality of life. Read more about treating spinal muscular atrophy . Testing for spinal muscular atrophy. Read more about diagnosing spinal muscular atrophy . The most common types of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) affect an estimated 2,000 to 2,500 people in the UK. more...



Muscle Atrophy, Causes, Tests, Diagnosis and Treatment

Muscle atrophy takes place when a muscle partially or completely wastes away and its mass decreases. Most cases of muscle atrophy are usually results of other pre-existing medical conditions that include the loss of muscle mass as a side effect. Some medical conditions that have muscle atrophy as one of its signs and symptoms may include: The reversibility of muscle atrophy will depend on the case of treatment as well as at the discretion of the physician; he or she may prescribe supplements that may help retain muscle mass. Anorexia nervosa : This eating disorder, characterized by the refusal of food due to an obsessive maintenance of body weight, can also lead to muscle atrophy. Similar to starvation, the symptoms of muscle atrophy can be reversed with therapy and adopting a healthy diet. Depending on the seriousness of COPD, there is a chance that muscle atrophy may be reversed by successful treating COPD. Drug abuse: Recreational drug abuse, such as the abuse of methamphetamine, can lead to muscle atrophy and possibly death. more...



Muscle Atrophy - Symptoms, Causes, Tests - NY Times Health

There are two types of muscle atrophy. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough. People with seated jobs, medical conditions that limit their movement, or decreased activity levels can lose muscle tone and develop atrophy. The most severe type of muscle atrophy is neurogenic atrophy. It occurs when there is an injury to, or disease of, a nerve that connects to the muscle. This type of muscle atrophy tends to occur more suddenly than disuse atrophy. An exercise program (under the direction of a therapist or doctor) is recommended to help treat muscle atrophy. This may include exercises in water to reduce the muscle workload, and other types of rehabilitation. When did the muscle atrophy begin? The doctor will look at your arms and legs and measure muscle size to try to determine which nerve or nerves are affected. Is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. more...



Very - low - carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass

I feel it is very unlikely that the VLCARB group catabolized more muscle protein than the high-unsatured fat diet group. This commentary provides some basic information on metabolic adaptations that lead to sparing of muscle protein during a VLCARB, and reviews studies examining the effects of VLCARB interventions on body composition. It is frequently claimed that a VLCARB sets the stage for a significant loss of muscle mass as the body recruits amino acids from muscle protein to maintain blood glucose via gluconeogenesis. The liver cannot utilize ketone bodies and thus, they flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain, muscle) for use as a fuel. Simply stated, ketone body metabolism by the brain displaces glucose utilization and thus spares muscle mass. However, a number of studies indicate that a VLCARB results in body composition changes that favour loss of fat mass and preservation in muscle mass. The results indicated that composition of weight lost during the VLCARB and the mixed diet was water 61.2, fat 35.0, protein 3.8, and water 37.1, fat 59.5, protein 3.4 percent, respectively. The results indicated that the weight loss with VLCARB is rapid, consistent, and almost exclusively from body fat stores. Although subjects were encouraged to consume adequate dietary energy to maintain body mass during the intervention, the results revealed that fat mass was significantly decreased (-3.4 kg) and lean body mass significantly increased (+1.1 kg) at week six (as measured by DEXA). The authors concluded that a VLCARB resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and an accompanying increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. How is the preservation of muscle mass brought about during a VLCARB? As noted above, the liver produces ketone bodies during a VLCARB and they flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain, muscle) for use as a fuel. During weight loss, higher protein intake reduces loss of muscle mass and increases loss of body fat [ 9 ]. more...



Hashimoto's Disease and Muscle Wasting

Hashimoto's Disease and Muscle Wasting. 150,688 conversations around the web about Hashimoto's Disease to help you make a decision. Treato found 55 discussions about Muscle Wasting and Hashimoto's Disease on the web. 0.04% of the posts that mention Muscle Wasting also mention Hashimoto's Disease (55 posts) Treato does not review third-party posts for accuracy of any kind, including for medical diagnosis or treatments, or events in general. Treato does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Usage of the website does not substitute professional medical advice. Treato does not provide medical advice, diagnoses or treatment. Treato is not responsible for promotions validity, application of the promotion code varies among the different Telehealth sites (for example during registration flow). more...



Diseases and Conditions that May Cause

Home ¬Ľ Diseases and Conditions that May Cause Bone Loss. Diseases and Conditions that May Cause Bone Loss. If you have any of the following diseases or conditions that can cause bone loss, talk to your doctor about what you can do to keep your bones healthy. Diseases and conditions that may cause bone loss include: These medicines can lead to bone loss and osteoporosis. Different forms of IBD, such as Crohn‚Äôs disease and ulcerative colitis, can cause bone loss. Steroid medicines are often used to treat these conditions, which can also contribute to bone loss. While type 1 diabetes seems to cause the greatest amount of bone loss, people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of breaking bones. Low levels of these hormones can lead to bone loss. Many of the medicines, including chemotherapy, used to treat these two forms of cancer can lead to bone loss and osteoporosis. Blood and bone marrow disorders. This drop in estrogen can cause bone loss and osteoporosis. In addition to causing low estrogen levels, anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders can lead to bone loss in females and males for other complex reasons. Because these medicines reduce the amount of estrogen in the body, they can lead to bone loss and broken bones. Because these medicines reduce the amount of male sex hormones in the body, they can lead to bone loss and broken bones. more...



Sarcopenia

Treatments for Sarcopenia. Treatments for Sarcopenia continued. Although drug therapy is not the preferred treatment for sarcopenia, a few medications are under investigation. Other treatments under investigation for sarcopenia include testosterone supplementation, growth hormone supplementation, and medication for treatment of metabolic syndrome ( insulin -resistance, obesity , hypertension , etc.). more...



What Causes Muscle Loss

There are many causes for the deterioration of muscles. Muscle wasting, or atrophy, occurs in two basic forms: disuse atrophy in which the muscles waste away due to lack of exercise, and neurogenic atrophy, which is muscle deterioration due to disease or injury. In some cases, once the cause of the atrophy is identified, surgery and physical therapy can help to counteract the effects of muscle wasting. When this occurs they lose muscle tone and with time this progresses to atrophy. Aging and injury causes of muscle wasting are classified as disuse atrophy. In all three of these diseases the communication between the nerves and muscles is impaired. Muscles lose the ability to function in response to nerve signals and the resulting lack of mobility leads to wasting. The result is a period in which there is lack of oxygen and brain cells die. This devastation to the motor nerve fibers causes weakness, lack of muscle control and eventual wasting of muscles. A common form of this type of neuropathy is referred to as multifocal motor neuropathy in which there is a progressive weakening and muscle wasting of the arms. In these diseases the muscle cells and tissues progressively deteriorate and die. more...



Muscle/Tissue Loss and Deterioration? - Lyme Disease

   Posted 8/1/2012 6:41 PM (GMT -6)       Posted 8/2/2012 5:36 AM (GMT -6)       Posted 8/2/2012 9:02 AM (GMT -6)       Posted 8/2/2012 9:14 AM (GMT -6)       Posted 8/3/2012 1:26 PM (GMT -6)       Posted 8/4/2012 10:16 AM (GMT -6)       Posted 10/21/2012 10:34 AM (GMT -6)       Posted 4/29/2013 12:51 PM (GMT -6)       Posted 4/29/2013 8:18 PM (GMT -6)       Posted 4/30/2013 7:00 PM (GMT -6)       Posted 5/1/2013 7:37 PM (GMT -6)    more...



Weight Loss and Wasting Syndromes with COPD

COPD and Weight Loss. Over time, the disease can also lead to significant weight loss. Along with managing COPD, you’ll need to learn how to maintain your weight while getting the nutrients you need to sustain energy levels. COPD is also a slow disease, so you may not experience any particularly bothersome symptoms until the disease has progressed. Weight loss is a sign of severe COPD. This reduces the amount of space between the lungs and your stomach, and when you eat, the two organs can push against one another and become quite uncomfortable. Even if you do have a good appetite, this phenomenon can lead to unintentional weight loss. Sometimes the weight loss associated with COPD is caused by resulting mental health issues. COPD changes your life in many ways and it can be difficult to cope with the disease. In considering COPD-related weight loss, the primary goals are to increase your body weight while also making sure you get proper nutrients. Sometimes the physical exertion of cooking can be too much for someone with COPD, and they might get out of breath rather quickly. You can save some of the physical work of cooking by buying already cut produce and other products. Properly treating the symptoms of COPD, like weight loss, can increase your overall quality of life. Maintaining a healthy weight and eating foods that don't worsen other symptoms can help keep other COPD issues at bay. more...




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